Faculty of Ecology of land ecosystems

Faculty of Ecology of land ecosystems

About FacultyThe ScienceMaster’sPostgraduate’s

Faculty of Ecology of land ecosystemsThe realization of the master program is enabled since 1993 for training of specialists in the field of the general and applied microbiology, biotechnology at faculty of soil science, ecology and environmental management with use of the academic and research base and infrastructure facilities including 8 large research laboratories of Institute of physical and chemical and biological problems of soil science of  Russian Academy of Sciences  (Institute of  Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science).

The educational directions of PushGENI on Institute of  Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science base cover practically all scientific directions of basic researches in this area: from questions of evolution of soils before functioning and an ecological role of soils as component of the biosphere, mathematical modeling of soil processes and ecosystems the complex of modern tool mineralogical and isotope and geochemical methods is also used: X-ray phase, thermoweight, messbauerovsky and IK-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, micromorphology of soils, electronic microscopy, magnetic and traditional chemical methods which the scientific research institute with direct uchastiyem8 doctors of the biological and 1 doctor of physical and mathematical sciences has 8 candidates of the biological and 1 candidate of geographical sciences and which help undergraduates and graduate students become full participants of scientific research and projects.

Are provided in the curriculum research (including spring and summer field) practice; expeditions in Prioksko-Terrasny the national natural park “Kaluga Mark”, on paleopochvenny researches of monuments of archeology (Lower Volga area – the Volgograd, Voronezh, Rostov regions; The North Caucasus is the Kislovodsk hollow; Crimea).

         Main scientific directions:
• evolution, functioning and ecological role of soils as biosphere component;
• physical and chemical and biological processes of soil formation, spatial temporary organization of soils;
• physical and chemical and biological processes of soil formation and transformation of natural and exogenous chemicals in soils and ecosystems;
• a soil role in biogeochemical cycles of biofilny, litofilny and technogenic elements;
• value of the cryosphere in global circulation of substance and energy and preservation of genetic resources;
• the existential organization and functioning of soils in the biosphere as a basis of sustainable development;
• mathematical modeling of soil processes and ecosystems.

At the organization of educational process for the program together with Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science the unique laboratory base and the new equipment is used:

– The center of collective use “Physical and chemical methods of a research of soils and ecosystems” – structural division Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science;
– a x-ray crystal – a diffraction spectrometer of “SPEKTROSKAN MAKS-GV” (Spektron, Russia);
– an issue spectrometer with the inductive and connected OPTIMA-5300DV plasma (“Perkin Elmer”, the USA);

– automatic CN analyzer “VarioEL III” (“Elementar”, Germany);

– chromatograph gas Kristallyuks-4000M (NPF Metakhrom, Russia);

– ardent photometer of BWB-XP Performance Plus (BWB Technologies, Great Britain);

– microscope polarizing Axioskop A1s digital camera and software (Carl Zeiss, Germany);

– the scanning electronic microscope of VEGA III LSU (Tescan, the Czech Republic) with the system of the power dispersive microanalysis AZtec Energy EDS (Oxford Instruments, Great Britain);

– IK-Fourier-spectrometer of Nicolet 6700 XT (Thermo Electron of the USA);

– desktop D2 PHASER diffractometer (Bruker Corporation, Germany).

Besides, the Algologichesky ACSSI collection (Algal Collectionof Soil Science Institute) created in 2016 for the purpose of creation, preservation and maintenance of strains of cyanobacteria and seaweed the, new to science or flora, rare and difficult from the taxonomical point of view, allocated mainly from land ecosystems of Russia and other countries is used.

The graduates who successfully mastered the program work in scientific research institute, in such areas as industrial ecology, environmental assessment, reserved business, forest and agriculture. Depending on the interests graduates of faculty can find work also in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies, higher education institutions and technical consultations, scientific centers.

Main scientific directions:

– Evolution, functioning and ecological role of soils as a component of the biosphere.

– Physicochemical and biological processes of soil formation, spatio-temporal organization of soils.

The main scientific tasks of fundamental research:011

• Physicochemical and biological processes of soil formation and transformation of natural and exogenous chemicals in soils and ecosystems.

• Role of soil in biogeochemical cycles of biophilic, lithophilic and technogenic elements.

• The importance of the cryosphere in the global circulation of matter and energy and conservation of genetic resources.

• Spatio-temporal organization and functioning of soils in the biosphere as a basis for sustainable development.

• Mathematical modeling of soil processes and ecosystems.

The structure of the Institute includes 8 research laboratories and 2 scientific auxiliary units. The Institute employs 1 corresponding member of the RAS, 19 doctors and more than 50 candidates of sciences.

Undergraduates receive education on the basis of the laboratories of the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Biology of the Institute of Physics and Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences;

• Laboratory of soil nitrogen and carbon cycles
Head Laboratory – Member. – corr. RAS Director of IPH and BPP RAS Valery Nikolaevich Kudeyarov

• Ecosystem modeling laboratory
Head Laboratory – Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Alexander Sergeevich Komarov

• Laboratory of soil ecology
Head Laboratory – Doctor of Biological Sciences Valery Mikhailovich Alifanov

• Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils
Head of the Laboratory – Doctor of Biological Sciences David Lazarevich Pinsky

• Laboratory of Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Soils
Head Laboratory – Doctor of Biological Sciences Alekseev Andrey Olegovich

• Group of genesis and evolution of soils
Group leader – Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Ivanov Igor Vasilievich

• Laboratory for Functional Ecology (IPPB RAS).
Head Laboratory – Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Anatoly Semenovich Kerzhentsev

Laboratory facilities (unique and new equipment):

The Center for Collective Use “Physicochemical Methods for the Study of Soils and Ecosystems” of the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Biological Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a scientific auxiliary structural unit of the Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Center for Collective Use of the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Biology, RAS is also a part of the Joint Regional Center for Shared Use “Structural and Functional Research of Biosystems” of the Pushchino Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (CUF PSC RAS).

Over the past 5 years, an X-ray crystal-diffraction spectrometer “SPECTROSKAN MAKS-GV” (“Spectron”, Russia), an emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma “OPTIMA-5300DV” (“Perkin Elmer”, USA), automatic CN- analyzer “Vario EL III” (“Elementar”, Germany), gas chromatograph Crystallux-4000M (NPF “Metakhrom”, Russia), flame photometer BWB-XP Performance Plus (BWB Technologies, Great Britain), polarizing microscope Axioskop A1 with digital camera and software software (Carl Zeiss, Germany), a VEGA III LSU scanning electron microscope (Tescan, Czech Republic) with an AZtecEnergy EDS energy dispersive microanalysis system (Oxford Instruments, Great Britain), a Nicolet 6700 XT IR Fourier spectrometer (ThermoElectron USA), a D2 PHASER benchtop diffractometer ( Bruker Corporation, Germany).

The algological collection ACSSI (Algal Collection of Soil Science Institute) of the Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences was created in 2016. The purpose of the Collection was to preserve and maintain new for science or flora, rare and taxonomically complex strains of cyanobacteria and algae, isolated mainly from terrestrial ecosystems of Russia and other countries.

Main teachers, leaders of scientific directions:

member – corr. RAS Director of IPH and BPP RAS Valeriy Nikolaevich Kudeyarov.RGlH 4aOc8

In the last 5 years, the greatest interest has been shown in the study of the carbon cycle and its balance both in ecosystems and on the territory of Russia as a whole. Together with the laboratory staff (IN Kurganova), the total CO2 emission from the soil cover of Russia was estimated for the first time. The main source of carbon dioxide in the country is soil respiration, which exceeds industrial CO2 emissions by almost 8 times. For the first time, the balance of biogenic CO2 has been assessed throughout the territory of Russia. As a result, it was shown that the territory of Russia is the territory of the absolute CO2 runoff in the amount of about 1 Gt C-CO2 / year.

Dean of the Educational Center “Soil Science, Ecology and Environmental Management”, reads a special course “Foundations of the doctrine of the biosphere.”

Prepared 11 candidates and 1 doctor of sciences. He is the chief editor of the journal “Agrochemistry”, deputy chief editor of Zh. “Soil Science”, a member of the editorial board of the international journal “International Agrophysic”, vice-president of the Dokuchaevsky Society of Soil Scientists, a member of the specialized council for the defense of doctoral dissertations at the Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University. In 2005 he was awarded the D.N. Pryanishnikov Russian Academy of Sciences for the work “Agrochemical and ecological aspects of the study of nitrogen and carbon cycles”.

The ecosystem modeling laboratory was founded in 1995. Its organizer and leader until May 31, 2015 was A.S. Komarov.

The main research areas of the Laboratory are:

• computer modeling of the dynamics of organic matter in forest ecosystems;

• modeling the dynamics of organic matter in soils;

• modeling of the dynamics of biophilic elements in the living ground cover;

• modeling the spatial structure of forest ecosystems;

• analysis of the impact of nitrogen compounds on the dynamics of forest ecosystems and the provision of forest soils with nitrogen nutrition;

• analysis of vegetation dynamics during successions and modeling of the formation processes of the species composition of forest ecosystems;

• analysis of the spatio-temporal organization of herbal phytocenoses.

Group of genesis and evolution of soils, head of Ch. researcher Ivanov Igor Vasilievich, Doctor of Geographical Sciences. Honored. scientist of the Russian Federation, professor, Author of 270 publications, including 15 books.

Recent studies have contained significant advances in the study of the evolution of soils, especially steppe soils. The tasks and methods of research are formulated. Differences in the evolution of soils of drained and undrained territories were established, contrasting and low-contrast types of evolution were revealed (meso-xeromorphic, meso-hydromorphic, intermittent deflationary, and others). It was found that widespread alkalinization of steppe soils began in the early Subboreal; much attention was paid to the dynamics of carbonates in the Holocene and to the microrelief elements.

The faculty prepares masters (2 years of study) in the direction 06.04.01 Biology under the educational program “Ecology of terrestrial ecosystems”;

Upon admission to the master’s program, it is necessary to pass an exam in biology

The master’s educational program includes fundamental disciplines in the direction and special courses:

• History and modern problems of soil scienceIMG 8654 1

• Ecology of soils

• Paleoecological factors of soil formation

• Structure of the soil cover

• Methods of regional monitoring

• Engineering and reclamation ecology

• Ecology of contaminated soils

• Population biology

• Biogeocenology

• Forest ecology and soil science

• Sustainable development

• International cooperation in the field of environmental protection

• Research methods in soil science

• Ecology of agrocenoses

• Functional ecology and ecopathology

• Paleogeography and Quaternary geology

• Ecosystem metabolism

• Geographic information systems in ecology (with the basics of databases)

• System analysis and mathematical modeling in ecology

• Modern methods of soil microbiology

The faculty prepares postgraduates (4 years of study) in the direction 06.06.01 Biological sciences in two specialties:

ecology – 02.08

• soil science – 02.13

Upon admission, you must pass exams: a special discipline in accordance with the chosen profile, a foreign language.

The faculty prepares graduate students in 2 directions:Fup KdmjGbk

Ecology:

Includes educational disciplines:

• Ecology of contaminated soils

• Biogeocenology

• Population biology

Soil science:

Includes educational disciplines:

• Ecology of contaminated soils

• Forest soil science

• Structure of the soil cover