Faculty of Cytobiology

Faculty of Cytobiology

About FacultyThe ScienceMaster’sPostgraduate’s

Faculty of CytobiologyThe master educational program is implemented since 1995 and consists of constantly staticized unique author’s courses of lectures made by scientific and pedagogical employees of faculty among whom there are 6 biological doctors and 1 doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, 12 Candidates of Biology.

The research and production component of students passes in laboratories on the basis of Institute of Cell Biophysics Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of  Cell Biophysics of  RAS) equipped with the equipment allowing to master various biophysical and biochemical methods of researches, and graduates join ranks of specialists researchers on cytobiology, physical and chemical mechanisms of functioning of cages and cellular systems.

At the same time process of training is combined with research work in Institute of Cell Biophysics Russian Academy of Sciences laboratories. The graduates who mastered the program gain fundamental knowledge in the field of molecular and cellular biology and practical knowledge in the field of the equipment and methods of molecular and cellular researches.

Upon completion of training they are invited to work by the leading profile scientific research institutes dealing with fundamental problems of physiology of organisms; enterprises of biotechnological, medical and pharmaceutical profiles; the medical institutions using electromagnetic fields in the diagnostic and medical purposes.

Main directions of scientific research:

  • reception and intracellular alarm system: molecular mechanisms of signal transmission in touch, immune, nervous and other cellular systems;
  • mechanisms of a cellular stress; hibernation; cryopreservation of cages; cellular engineering; creation of genetic cryobank of rare and endangered species of living beings;
  • mechanisms of action of electromagnetic and acoustic fields and also ionizing radiation on a cage and cellular systems;
  • research of structure and functional properties of biomolecules; conformational mobility of biopolymers; principles of stabilization of structure of proteins and supramolecular complexes;
  • medical aspects of cellular biology; molecular mechanisms of cellular pathologies; search of means of their diagnostics and correction.

Main directions of research

• Reception and intracellular signaling: molecular mechanisms of signal transmission in sensory, immune, nervous and other cellular systems.

• Mechanisms of cellular stress. Hibernation. Cryopreservation of cells. Cellular Engineering. Creation of a genetic cryobank of rare and endangered species of living beings.

• Mechanisms of action of electromagnetic and acoustic fields, as well as ionizing radiation on the cell and cellular systems.

• Study of the structure and functional properties of biomolecules. Conformational mobility of biopolymers. Principles of stabilization of the structure of proteins and supramolecular complexes.

• Medical aspects of cell biology. Molecular mechanisms of cellular pathologies. Search for means of their diagnostics and correction.

Achievements, significant discoveries, inventions:

For the first time, the propagation of Ca2 + – waves in non-excitable cells, coupled with ATP secretion, and providing a coordinated behavior of the cell population in response to stimulation of certain receptors, was recorded. This type of intercellular communication is universal and plays an important role in the regulation of the functioning of cells and tissues.

A new antioxidant protein of the olfactory epithelium, peroxiredoxin VI, has been discovered and characterized. The main antioxidant properties have been studied, the hierarchy in the general system of antioxidant enzymes in the animal body has been revealed. A high therapeutic effect was shown when using recombinant peroxiredoxins VI in the treatment of acute inflammatory processes and wounds, which makes it possible to create a new class of therapeutic drugs with antioxidant action.

A map of the distribution of elements that may be involved in the regulation of gene expression in E. coli. Genes were identified, from the coding regions of which, in addition to mRNA, antisense or alternative (truncated) RNA products can be synthesized.

The total number of patents over the past 5 years is 9.

Laboratory facilities:

• Spectrophotometer CARY 100, Varian, Australia

• System for chromatographic separation of proteins Acta Purifier 100 (GE Pharmacia, USA)

• Ultrasonic disintegrator Sonicator-4000 (Misonix, USA)

• Dual-beam scanning spectrophotometer Evolution 600 (190-900nm, Thermo Scientific, USA)

• Lumina fluorescence scanning spectrometer (190-900nm, Thermo Scientific, USA)

• Laser scanning confocal microscope Leica TSC SP5 (Leica, Germany)

• Research microscope Leica DM6000B (Leica, Germany)

• Research microscope Axio Observer (Carl Zeiss, Germany)

• Research microscope Axio Imager (Carl Zeiss, Germany)

• Motorized stereomicroscope Leica MZ 16A (Leica, Germany)

• Confocal scanning microscopes LSM 510 from Karl Zeiss and TCS SP5Leica.

• High-speed fluorescent station AF 6000 (Leica)

The faculty prepares: masters (2 years of study) in the direction 06.04.01 Biology under the educational program “Cell Biology”;

Upon admission, you must pass an exam in biology

The master’s educational program includes fundamental disciplines in the direction and special courses:

• Physiology of cells of the immune system

• Cellular electrogenesis

• Stress and mechanisms of cell adaptation

• Adaptive regulation of gene expression

• Fundamentals of molecular biology of the cell

• Intracellular signaling

• Molecular mechanisms of sensory reception

• Kinetics and regulation of intracellular processes

• Physical methods in molecular biophysics

• Structural and morphological analysis of cells by optical and electron microscopy

• Spectral methods of analysis of cells and cell populations

• Cellular engineering

• Molecular methods of cell biology

• Ultrasound in biology and medicine

• Methods of electron microscopy in cell biology and medicine

The faculty prepares: postgraduate students (4 years of study) in the direction 06.06.01 Biological sciences in three specialties:

• biophysics – 03.00.02;

• biochemistry – 03.00.04;

• molecular biology – 03.00.03

Upon admission, you must pass exams: a special discipline in accordance with the chosen profile, a foreign language.

The faculty prepares postgraduate students in 3 areas:

Biophysics:

Includes educational modules:

• Physics of biopolymers and supramolecular structures

• Structure and dynamics of biomolecules: radiospectroscopy, thermodynamics, kinetics

• Biophysics of cellular and membrane processes

• Structural and functional features of striated and smooth muscles

• Radiation and environmental biophysics

Biochemistry:

Includes educational modules:

• Physicochemical foundations of biochemistry

• Enzymatic catalysis

• Molecular mechanisms of biological processes in the cell

• Methods of biochemistry

• Storage and implementation of genetic information

• Molecular mechanisms of sensory reception

Molecular biology:

Includes educational modules:

• Structure and biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Genomics.

• Structure and function of proteins.

• Ribosome structure and protein biosynthesis. Protein Engineering